"Traditional Music of Poland - Recorded in situ 1945-50" - Various Artists



  • artist:
    Various Artists
  • region:
    Eastern Europe
  • release year:
    2008
  • style(s):
    • Traditional
  • country:
    Poland
  • formats:
    • Audio File / Digital
  • record submitted by:

This CD project is the fourth of four audio compilations created in the framework of DISMARC (Discovering Music Archives), co-funded by the European Commission. The project consists of 99 songs, several photos and a detailed booklet.

Introduction

From a European perspective, systematic and institutional phonographic documentation of traditional music in Poland began quite late. Although folk music phonogram archiving was underfinanced and therefore not actively being undertaken in Poland, professionals were well acquainted with current methods of recording and storing audio data. It was in the major European phonogram archives of Vienna and Berlin that Polish sound archivists acquired the necessary education and experience which enabled them to create and preserve a priceless audio collection belonging to the world music heritage.

The origin of Polish folk music audio collection

The first phonogram archive of Polish folk music - the Regional Phonogram Archive (Regionalne Archiwum Fonograficzne - RAF) - was founded by Lucjan Kamienski in 1930 at the Department of Musicology of the University of Poznan. The researchers of RAF had been using the method of electro-acoustic audio recording since 1935. Their recording equipment consisted of carbon microphones, battery amplifiers and other audio devices produced by Sanders and Janzen in Berlin. The audio collection of RAF reached the number of 4020 phonograms of folk songs and instrumental music from Western and Central regions of Poland (Wielkopolska, Pomorze, Kaszuby and Mazowsze) which were recorded on wax-cylinders and gelatine plates.

The second Polish phonogram archive - the Central Phonogram Archive (Centralne Archiwum Fonograficzne - CAF) - was founded by Julian Pulikowski in 1934 at the National Library in Warsaw. The researchers used Edison phonograph cylinders as sound carriers. The audio collection of CAF contained 4850 wax-cylinders with folk songs and instrumental music (20 000 items). Altogether, the audio recordings which were gathered in both Polish pre-war folk music archives included over 24 000 items.

World War II caused irreparable losses in Polish culture, science and art. This was unfortunate for both Polish pre-war phonogram archives of folk music, as all sound recordings stored in RAF and CAF were completely destroyed.

The (re)making of the collection

The effort of restoring Polish folk music audio collections was undertaken by Lucjan Kamienski's students, Marian Sobieski and his wife Jadwiga Pietruszynska-Sobieska, immediately after the war. The new reality of the early post-war period (e.g. lack of the pre-war field documentation, migrations, large-scale industrialisation) made it necessary to record and preserve the music folklore which was likely to die out along with the elderly generations of folk musicians.

Facing this problem, Marian Sobieski, at that time an assistant in the Institute of Musicology of the University of Poznan, together with Tadeusz Wrotkowski and Marek Kwiek (PhD) founded the first Polish post-war archive of folk music recordings in July 1945. This fully private Western Phonogram Archive (Zachodnie Archiwum Fonograficzne - ZAF) was situated in Wrotkowski's apartment in Poznan. For obvious reasons the goals and activities of ZAF did not correspond to the priorities for the Polish state, which was focused on post-war reconstruction. The archive received no support from the Ministry of Culture and Art, and thus researchers lacked any efficient sound recording device. Fortunately, Tadeusz Wrotkowski managed to save some parts of the recording equipment used in the 1930s. So, the archive team made an attempt to construct an original sound recording device. In 1948 Marian Sobieski, in cooperation with experienced technicians, managed to construct a functioning audio recording device on spring-drive.

The improvised recording studio was provided with set of different audio devices. The equipment of ZAF consisted of 5-valve amplifier 15 Watt Telefunken with 2-valve attachment on alternating current, condenser microphone Telefunken with 2-valve attachment, carbon microphone Dralowid type DR1, recording device on alternating current with simple and bow-shaped construction, mobile generator on 220 Volts with patrol drive DKW, 500 plates ready for recording. The first post-war recordings of Polish folk music were made on the Decelith high-speed soft plates and on the Presto varnish plates. These types of audio plates were recorded and played back at 78 rpm, which allowed 5-8 minutes of music per disc.

The first recording sessions were organised in Wielkopolska already in August 1945. One of the main goals of the research and documentation of folk music in Wielkopolska was to find a koziol - a local bagpipe - and to make recordings of the repertoire which had been performed on this archaic instrument. Marian and Jadwiga Sobieski travelled on bicycles with the recording equipment. Until 1947 they made 450 recordings of folk melodies. In the ZAF there were collected 471 phonograms which contained Polish vocal (245 songs) and instrumental (226) folk music. This was recorded on 77 Decelith plates.

In 1946 the State Institute for Folk Art Research (Panstwowy Instytut Badania Sztuki Ludowej - PIBSL) was established, and in 1947, on the initiative of professor Adolf Chybinski, its Music Section was founded. Both Sobieskis were employed: Marian as the head and Jadwiga as an assistant. The Western Phonogram Archive was incorporated into the structure of the Institute in 1948. The annual report concerning the works of Music Section of PIBSL gave information about the progress of documentation of Polish folk music in 1948:

"Constructing, conservation and replacing the parts of the phonographic devices, accumulators and auxiliary equipment take a lot of time and energy. The Section finalised the construction of the spring-drive recording device which would be utilised for audio recordings during field trips. The synchronic devices for audio recording and audio copying were bought. In the domain of research and preparatory works the catalogue of folk performers, field informants, and localities which are interesting for the folk music investigators was conducted. The alphabetic catalogue of dudy and koziol players from Wielkopolska, the book of recordings and the alphabetic catalogue of recordings was created. For the indicatory goals the Section collects also the transcriptions of folk melodies which has already reached 200 items. During the research work of the Section 448 Decelith plates were recorded with folk vocal and instrumental pieces. As a result, the amount of the audio recordings of Polish folk music which were collected by the Section increased from 569 to 1015 items. The whole audio collection was recorded in Wielkopolska which is the significant evidence of how the lack of efficient transport vehicle limited the geographical range of Section's work".

The main problem of the field works of the Music Section of the PIBSL was the lack of an automobile. The electro-acoustic method of recording the Decelith plates was much better than the small and handy wax-cylinder Edison recorder but, due to its weight and fragile construction, it required transport. When the Music Section received finally a special car for music field-recordings, the geographic range of the research became wider. Researchers made 885 recordings, including the audio material from Opoczynskie (442 phonograms) and Poznan district (443 phonograms from Gostyn, Konin and Krotoszyn counties). A total amount of 1866 items were recorded by the Music Section until 1949.

The audio quality of original recordings made on the Deceliths was often not satisfactory. The unstable speed of the machine resulted in poor sound quality. The main obstacle was the lack of electricity in villages, and the noise of the mobile generator often disturbed recordings.

The ethnomusicological field-work of Polish researchers was not limited to audio recording only. During their field trips they found specimens of old and original musical instruments which were known only from evidence. Some folk musicians which were encouraged to play traditional instruments started to use sierszenki (a kind of primary bagpipe), mazanki (a miniature 3-string fiddle), maryna (a bass string instrument) and koziol slubny (a type of bagpipe) in their musical practice.

The main goals of the field research were following:


    <li>to save at least a part of authentic spiritual folk culture in the phase of its decline and disappearance;
    </li> <li>to enable wide access to authentic village music which was created by the people and which existed in a specific socio-cultural space;
    </li> <li>to study the audio material in terms of ethnomusicology and comparative studies.
    </li> </ul>

    Jadwiga and Marian Sobieski believed in the revival of the authentic village music-making in Poland. They had an idea of publishing the best recordings on LP editions as the regional phonographic series which could be used in various forms of music education.

    The problem of multiple playback of the original audio material soon became evident. The lack of efficient audio playback device which would not destroy the carrier and the lack of special needles for playback resulted in a small quantity of music transcriptions. By 1948 the researchers had transcribed only 22 recordings, therefore the original plates recorded in the field were copied. The original field Deceliths were stored in the archive while the transcribers could use the duplicates for playback.

    In 1950 the State Institute of Art (Panstwowy Instytut Sztuki - PIS) was established. This institution took over the plans, projects and archives of the PIBSL. The audio collection of Polish folk music increased to over 2000 recordings and the first step of the (re)construction of national phonographic heritage was thus completed.

    Playback, copying, restoration and digitisation

    In the 1950s the reel tapes became a popular carrier for sound recordings. The content of the Decelith plates was copied onto reel tapes in 1957-1958. As a result, the collection of 420 reel tapes was created, each of them containing:

      <li>sound material which was recorded on both sides of each original Decelith plate;
      </li> <li>information about the original field recording and details of the copying.
      </li> </ul>
      The speech announcements recorded at the beginning of each tape gave information about the place, time, technical and (sometimes) the individuals involved in the original field recording.

      Due to the lack of documentation concerning the process of copying the Decelith contents, the technical specification of the phonic track which was used in 1957 remains unknown. The following issues had still to be resolved:

        <li>what device was used to playback the Decelith plates?
        </li> <li>which tape recorder was used to make the recordings?
        </li> <li>what kind of connections were used?
        </li> <li>was the original audio signal modified and if so, how, and was this intentional or did it result from the application of a specific tape recorder?
        </li> </ul>

        The first attempt to reconstruct the Decelith content was carried out in 1970. The cooperation between the Folk Music Archive of the Institute of Art of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Instytut Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk - ISPAN) and the Department of Sound Engineering of Music High School in Warsaw was established. This project took over reconstruction of the phonograms which were field-recorded on the Decelith plates and reel tapes. The main goal of the project was to publish the most valuable recordings on LP. Despite this, the double LP Grajcie dudy grajcie basy (edited by MUZA Polskie Nagrania in 1976) did not contain the Decelith recordings.

        The idea of digitising ISPAN's sound collection, inspired by achievements of different European sound archives, developed in 2001. The experiences of international sound archiving institutions became the starting point for the project concerning digitisation of the folk music audio collection of ISPAN.

        The process of digitisation was preceded by the second attempt of reconstruction of the Decelith plates in 2005. Jacek Jackowski, a curator of the Sound Collection of ISPAN and Franz Lechleitner, an expert in audio reconstruction and playback of phonographic mechanic recordings in the Vienna Phonogrammarchiv, carried out the playback of some chosen Decelith plates from ISPAN on the special gramophone. This attempt proved that the original Decelith records were still readable but most of them needed special treatment such as cleaning, washing, etc. At this moment, the most effective method of possible reproduction of recordings had not been yet elaborated.

        Digitisation of the Decelith contents began in 2007, and was closely related to the DISMARC project carried out by ISPAN in cooperation with other European audio archives in 2006-2008. The main result of this project is an online pan-European database for several music archives. For ISPAN, it was a strong stimulus to digitise at least part of the sound recordings. Almost four thousand songs and melodies recorded on the Decelith plates between 1945-1950 (the oldest and therefore the most valuable part of the collection) were finally chosen for digitisation. The original paper documentation of this collection was incomplete and partly incorrect. Included in DISMARC as a special task, the metadata have been digitised. While transferring the data to the electronic database, the repertoire was carefully revised and metadata were confronted with digitised recordings. Thus, for the first time, the full content of this repertoire is known and made available to users.


        In the meantime, the question arose regarding which sound carrier should be digitised - the original plate or its copy on reel tape. It was clear that the quality of the audio signal which had been recorded on the reel tapes was different than the one saved on the Deceliths. Although in 1957 the audio signal which had been copied onto the reel was a derivative product of worse quality than the original, in 2007 the quality of the copies was in many cases much better than that of respective original Deceliths. Moreover some of the Decelith recordings became in course of time physically deformed, polluted or even destroyed. After discussion and analysis, the staff of the Sound Collection of ISPAN decided to digitise 420 reel tapes which contained the copies of the Decelith content. The decision was caused by the obvious difference in sound quality obtained on the best audio devices available in the ISPAN in 2007.

        This CD containing a selection of field recordings made on Decelith plates in 1945-1950, is the first audio publication which consists uniquely of ISPAN's recordings. Thanks to DISMARC, this audio material, after more than half a century of being hidden in the archive, will be available for the broad public. Thus, after fifty years, the dreams and plans of the creators of the ISPAN Sound Collection - Jadwiga and Marian Sobieski - came true.

        Descripition of regional musical traditions presented on the CD

        Wielkopolska

        Wielkopolska (Great Poland) is a region situated in the western part of Poland, in the middle part of the Warta river-basin, with Poznan and Gniezno as historic cities being important centres of the early Polish statehood. The territory of Wielkopolska which was inhabited by wealthy people aware of its regional and cultural distinctiveness was administered by the Prussians between 1793-1919.

        Wielkopolska is an exceptional region in terms of folk music traditions. Particular attention has always been paid to bagpipes. This instrument, which became the symbol of musical tradition of Wielkopolska, exists in different types and performs various functions (e.g. dudy, koziol, sierszenki). Recordings made in Wielkopolska in the 1930s were the core of the audio collection of the Western Phonogram Archive (ZAF). The first recordings of performers presented on this CD, such as: Wawrzyniak brothers band, Tomasz Brudlo, Jan Gniotowski, Tomasz Sliwa, Jan Pajchrowski and Marianna Kulawiak were registered in the pre-war period by the RAF. After the war, Jadwiga and Marian Sobieski started the reconstruction of folk music documentation by re-recording those artists, among others.

        The bagpipe which already had been known in Europe in Middle Ages was documented in Poland in the 14th century. This musical instrument has survived in musical practice of Wielkopolska until present. The bagpipe existed in Wielkopolska in several types which differed in construction, timbre and style of decoration. The simplest form of bagpipe was siesienki (or sierszenki) which used to be played by shepherds. Later it became an exercise instrument for young boys. Jan Pajchrowski plays siesienki on the recording made in 1950 [11]. The koziol is another local type of bagpipe [1, 3, 5, 9, 13, 16, 19]. This instrument has a very characteristic timbre, lower in pitch than that of the dudy [6, 12]. Koziol was popular in the surroundings of Zbaszyn, Chrosnica and Wolsztyn. The wide interest in bagpipe among young people as well as existence of schools of traditional playing are a good example of cultivation of old regional musical traditions. Tomasz Sliwa was a great and well-known koziol player [1, 3, 16, 18]. He worked as an instructor of playing koziol, violin and clarinet in the State Music School in Zbaszyn.

        The typical ensemble set of Wielkopolska was dudy and violin. In the past dudy was accompanied by mazanki - a small three-string fiddle with shrill timbre which was hollowed out of one piece of wood [18]. Later mazanki was replaced by factory-made violins with tied up strings (podwiazane or przewiazane violin) [12]. Although musicians used to play for dancing, they also participated in wedding rituals. The black wedding koziol (koziol slubny) was used solo or with mazanki only during the wedding ceremony [18]. The oldest generation of bagpipe players of Wielkopolska was recorded on the Deceliths. Most of them were born in the 19th century. They represented the original style of playing which was based on variation-like playing of musical theme. The koziol players presented on this CD (Jan Gniotowski, Tomasz Brudlo) played the E instruments (the typical key for bagpipes before the Eb clarinet was introduced to local folk bands).

        A great part of the audio collection of Wielkopolska is made of vocal music sung in the local dialect. The oldest vocal recordings represent typical singing in fast tempo with rich embellishments. The modal scales in melodies testify to the ancient origins of the repertoire. The folk song style of Wielkopolska was influenced by bagpipe music in terms of music scales and performance style. Wielkopolska singers are represented by Marianna Kulawiak [2] and Franciszka Ciesiólkowa [4, 7, 8, 14, 15, 17]. Kulawiak was an expert in wedding vocal repertoire and was often invited to local weddings as a wedding-hostess. Tempo rubato is a key feature of her singing style. Franciszka Ciesiólkowa was considered the best folk singer of Wielkopolska. The singing style of Ciesiólkowa which had been influenced by instrumental music of Wielkopolska is characterised by rich ornamentation, tempo rubato, fast tempos, variable accentuation and melismatic undulating melodic lines. Her manner of singing with a strong, slightly fluttering alto, results from her familiarity with bagpipe music and her reflection of its style.

        The popular folk dances in Wielkopolska were wiwat [3, 4, 5, 9, 11], chodzony (a walking dance) and okragly (a round dance) [18], równy (an even dance), szocz [16] as well as polka [13] and oberek [6] - the last two extremely popular in majority of regions in Poland.

        Opoczynskie

        The region of Opoczynskie (the name of the region comes from the name of the Opoczno town) is situated in the southern boundaries of Central Poland. The influence of neighbouring regions is noticeable in folk music of Opoczynskie. Duple-meter typical of Malopolska (Little Poland) appears in local songs and instrumental music. However, triple-time melodies (especially couplets) which predominate in Mazowsze region occur here as well. The couplets of Opoczynskie are short, vivid, expressive, often improvised. This vocal form can be found in several melodic types which supply countless numbers of lyrics [23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 31, 35, 36]. One text can be sung with different melodies, one melody can serve different texts. This variability makes couplets different from the ritual (mostly wedding) songs, the lyrics of which are strictly linked with the canonical melodic types [25, 32].

        The singing style of Opoczynskie is characterised by a full, strong and intensive vocal delivery. The extension of musical phrases with non-semantic words is typical for this region [28, 30]. One important and distinct feature of folk singing of Opoczynskie is the exclamations which are performed especially by women in the end of musical phrases [27, 30]. The recordings of singers of Opoczynskie (e.g. Marianna Felinska, Franciszka Pluta, Józef Binczyk) which were made between 1945-1950 are characterised by the richness of the tempo rubato manner and overlapping of duple-time and triple-time metres.

        The traditional band of Opoczynskie consisted mainly of violin and small one-sided drum with jingling discs. The three-string bass (basy) and big drum with plate (baraban) were also a part of the instrumentation of folk ensembles of the region.

        Particular attention should be paid to the unique live recording of authentic dance events recorded in Ogonowice - the only one in the whole Decelith collection. The folk ensemble performed popular folk dances in the Opoczynskie region [34]. A folk game-dance Miotlarz [29] and Owczarek [22] are examples of instrumental music which was played in the oberek tempo.

        Rzeszowskie region

        Rzeszowskie (the name of the region comes from the name of the Rzeszów city) is situated in south-eastern part of Poland. This ethnographic region borders Lubelskie region in the north and on its south it reaches the northern edges of Beskid Niski mountains. The distinct musical folklore of Rzeszowskie is a result of cultural influences of neighbouring regions. E.g. the krakowiak [56] which is typical syncopated dance of Krakowskie region has been popular in Rzeszowskie as well. The lively tradition of ritual singing was a common feature with Lubelskie. Archaic wedding [49, 50, 52, 54, 61, 68] and harvest [42, 43] songs of Rzeszowskie were sung in a plaintive manner with expressive narration, rich embellishments, free rhythm and slow tempo. Narrow range melodies (i.e. based on simple scales) testify to the ancient origins of this repertoire. The lyrics of songs contain many archaic lexical forms. Long historical epic songs (present also in other regions of Poland) performed by wandering blind musicians belong to a vocal repertoire of old provenance [40].

        The old set of folk music ensemble of Rzeszowskie consisted of violin and basy. Hand-made basy was traditionally used in a band to play rhythm, rather than supporting harmony. The basy player would not stop the strings while playing. Harmonic thinking did not develop until the end of WWI. Later the second violin was added to the traditional bands of Rzeszowskie. Two violins and three-string basy comprised a typical ensemble of Rzeszowskie in the 1950s [59, 60, 64, 67].

        The instrumental folk music of Rzeszowskie was played mainly for dancing. Two-beat dances predominate in the region. Different types of polka (tramelka, wsciekla=mad, drobna=fine, galopka=running, szalona=crazy) are characteristic of Rzeszowskie [39, 45, 65, 69]. One of the typical kinds of polka was haciok dance [64]. Oberek [46, 62, 67], równy [44], okólka [60], sztajerek, walczyk are examples of triple-time dances popular in Rzeszowskie. Marches represent the type of obligatory repertoire played at specific moments of the wedding [53, 56]. The Jewish tune (Zyd) is an example of intermingling of the repertoire and style of ethnic minorities into Polish native culture [51]. Fiddlers of Rzeszowskie also played ritual melodies during weddings.

        Lubelskie region

        Lubelskie (the name of the region comes from the name of the Lublin city) is situated in the south-eastern part of Poland. The region borders Rzeszowskie on the south, and Mazowsze and Podlasie on the north. Vocal and instrumental music of this region is influenced by the culture of Eastern Slavs, while inner differentiation distinguishes various subregions. The centre of Lubelskie is an area between the towns of Pulawy, Bilgoraj and Tomaszów Lubelski.

        The phenomenon of mixing the repertoire is characteristic for Lubelskie, where duple- and triple-time metres intermingle. Krakowiak, oberek and waltz tunes are played at dance events. Many examples of ritual repertoire were alive in the eastern part of Lubelskie in the 1950s. Old wedding songs of free rhythmic structure, long musical phrase and narrow-range melody were sung in maudlin and lament style [79, 81, 85, 92, 93]. The most archaic form represents the Lado refrain [93]. The ritual wedding vocal repertoire used to be sung collectively. Parts of the presented recordings of such repertoire were performed by young generation of singers, evidence of the vitality of those archaic songs. The vocal repertoire of Lubelskie consists also of so-called spiewanki and przyspiewki (couplets) [74, 77, 91, 95]. Jan Miksza represents a local style of singing couplets [74]. Carols, szczodrak [70] songs represent the oldest layer of local musical folklore which was still vivid in 1950s. Similarly the harvest songs with a narrow-range melody structure were also of ancient origin [98].

        The traditional wedding as well as other family ceremonies could have been accompanied by fiddler solo or by an ensemble of fiddle and one-sided drum with jingling discs. The fiddlers of Lubelskie were typical wedding musicians (e.g. Marcin Gilas, Piotr Kiszczak, Józef Kozlowski, Józef Kosz, Józef Radej, Hipolit Tracz, Jacenty Borsuk). They represent the old style of village music characterised by variability in playing the melody, rich ornamentation, tempo rubato, repeating melodies in different registers, changing accentuation and rhythm [71, 72, 78, 80, 82, 84, 86-90, 94-96, 99]. The violin players solo [80, 86] or with the band [87] often took part in the ritual parts of the wedding. The drum virtuoso was Adam Korczak who used imitational techniques (e.g. sound of basy) when playing the one-sided drum [88]. The second violin which was incorporated in traditional band of Lubelskie played usually up-beats [71, 73, 75, 83, 84, 86, 90].

        The most popular dance in Lubelskie was oberek [73, 75, 84, 88, 90, 94-96, 99]. Majdaniak [78] was one of regional types of this folk dance, played slower then oberek. Prosty (a straight dance) [71] was another dance tune of this kind popular in the area of Bilgoraj. Podrózniak [82] was the type of oberek played on cart during the way to or from the wedding. Polka [72, 89] was also a very popular dance in Lubelskie. The interesting example of dance with singing was Mach [76].

        CD TRACK LIST

        Wielkopolska region:

        1. Do slubu (Going to wedding) - a wedding song sung after blessing the bride, before departure to church (rec. 1950)
        Tomasz Sliwa (b. 1892 in Perzyny) - bagpipe (koziol)

        2. Sciyzka d(u)o pszyniczki (Down the path to the wheat) - a wedding song (rec. 1946)
        Marianna Kulawiak (b. 1868 in Michorzewo) - vocal

        3. Wiwat starodawny (Old time wiwat) - a wedding dance (rec. 1950)
        Tomasz Sliwa - bagpipe (koziol)

        4. Wiwat Oj hola, hola dziewulo moja (Wiwat Oj hola hola my girl) - a wedding dance (rec. 1949)
        Franciszka Ciesiólka (b. 1881 in Ilówiec) - vocal

        5. Wiwat Mój kon nieborak trzy dni nic nie jad (Wiwat My poor horse hasn't eaten anything for three days) - a wedding dance (rec. 1948)
        Jan Gniotowski (b. 1876 in Chobienice) - bagpipe (koziol)

        6. Oberek - a dance tune (rec. 1945)
        Tomasz Wawrzyniak (b. 1876 in Szewce) - bagpipe (dudy), Michal Wawrzyniak (b. 1867 in Szewce) - violin

        7. Oj musialas ty dziwcze co umiec (Girl, you must have been good hands) - (rec. 1950)
        Franciszka Ciesiólka - vocal

        8. A chocioz ci jo malusinka (Even though I am so tiny) - (rec. 1949)
        Franciszka Ciesiólka - vocal

        9. Wiwat - a wedding dance (rec. 1950)
        Tomasz Sliwa - bagpipe (koziol)

        10. Wiwat Jasiu skrobie tyczki Kasia pedzi byczki (Wiwat John is scraping sticks, Kate is gouding cattle) - a wedding dance (rec. 1950)
        Jan Pajchrowski (b. 1912 in Gnin) - vocal

        11. Wiwat Jasiu skrobie tyczki Kasia pedzi byczki (rec. 1950)
        Jan Pajchrowski - bagpipe (siesienki/sierszenki)

        12. Walcerek Szumial gaj szumial gaj (Walcerek Rustled the grove) - a dance tune (rec. 1950)
        Stanislaw Kurowski (b. 1880 in Donatowo) - bagpipe (dudy), Michal Kurowski (b. 1872 in Nowy Golebin) - bound-up violin (skrzypce podwiazane)

        13. Polka - a dance tune (rec. 1946)
        Wawrzyn Domagala (b. 1878 in Zbaszyn) - bagpipe (koziol)

        14. (u)Oj wesola jest mi tamta strona (Hey, pleasant is the other side) - (rec. 1950)
        Franciszka Ciesiólka - vocal

        15. Siedzi sowa na stodole (The owl is sitting on the barn) - (rec. 1949)
        Franciszka Ciesiólka - vocal

        16. Szocz - a dance tune (rec. 1950)
        Tomasz Sliwa - bagpipe (koziol)

        17. Kukuleczka zakukala (Cuckooed the cuckoo) - (rec. 1949)
        Franciszka Ciesiólka - vocal

        18. Okragly (A round) - a dance tune (rec. 1950)
        Tomasz Sliwa - bagpipe (koziol slubny), Edward Rybicki (b. 1909 in Stefanowo) - fiddle (mazanki)

        19. Do slubu (Going to wedding, rec. 1948)
        Tomasz Brudlo (b. 1873 in Wachabno) - bagpipe (koziol), Walenty Brudlo (b. 1869 in Wachabno) - violin

        Opoczynskie region:

        20. Oberek - a dance tune (rec. 1949)
        Michal Makowski (b. 1867 in Marianka) - pipe (fujarka)

        21. Przyszlismy tu po dyngusie (We came here for dyngus) - the song sung during collecting gifts at Easter time (rec. 1949)
        Marianna Wiktorowicz (b. 1881 in Karwice) - vocal, Jan Stepien (b. 1898 in Karwice) - violin

        22. Nie wyganiaj (u)owczarecku (u)owiec na rose - (Shepherd, do not goud your sheep on dew) - a „shepherd" play-dance (rec. 1949)
        Wladyslaw Zoras (b. 1879 in Bieliny) - vocal

        23. A zarycal zabucal wolek na malinie (Brayed and droned an ox in raspberries) - a couplet (rec. 1949)
        Wladyslawa Kaskiewicz (b. 1932 in Libiszów) - vocal

        24. Stukalem pukalem nie chciala (u)otworzyc (I knocked and rupped but she wouldn't open) - a couplet (rec. 1949)
        Rozalia Matysiak (b. 1929 in Libiszów) - vocal

        25. Przezegnaj mamusiu a prawum ronckom na krzyz (Bless me mother making a cross sign with your right hand) - a wedding song to bless the bride (rec. 1949)
        Józefa Golab (b. 1906 Weglany) - vocal

        26. Oberek - a dance tune (rec. 1949)
        Antoni Stanik (b. 1911 Kozenin) - violin

        27. (u)Od Siyradza portki modre (Those from Sieradz wear cerulean blue trousers) - a couplet (rec. 1949)
        Marianna Felinska (b. 1894 in Wólka) - vocal

        28. Dana moja dana nie chce jo Adama - (Dana moja dana I don't want Adam) - a couplet (rec. 1949)
        Maria Wijata (b. 1936 in Swinna) - vocal

        29. Miotlarz (Broom-man) - a "broom" play-dance (rec. 1949)
        Jan Stepien - violin

        30. A niedobro kapuscina a niedobro (Tasteless cabbage) - a couplet (rec. 1949)
        Franciszka Pluta (b. 1916 in Karwice) - vocal

        31. A w niedziele sie napic w póniedzialek p(u)oprawic (Let's have a drink on Sunday and again on Monday) - a couplet (rec. 1949)
        Antonina Franczak (b. 1868 in Kozenin) - vocal

        32. Wychodzi wianecek a z kómory do siyni (A wedding garland is coming out from the chamber to the hall) - a song sung during oczepiny (capping) ceremony - taking off the bride's garland and putting on a coif - a symbol of a married women (rec. 1949)
        Rozalia Matysiak (b. 1929 in Libiszów) - vocal

        33. Polka - a dance tune (rec. 1949)
        Antoni Stanik - violin

        34. Polka W nocy o pólnocy (Polka At night, at midnight) - a dance tune with couplets (rec. 1950 at authentic folk dance event in Ogonowice)
        Unknown performers: vocal, violin, big drum with plate (baraban)

        35. A ji(y) przyslam na wesele da wesele nie bardzo (I came to the wedding but it's not good fun) - a couplet (rec. 1949)
        Genowefa Baran (b. 1931 in Ogonowice) - vocal

        36. Cztery mile za Warszawum (u)ozyniy(e)l sie wróbel z kawum - (Four miles away from Warsaw a sparrow married a jackdaw) - a couplet (rec. 1949)
        Józef Binczyk (b. 1913 in Miedzyrzecz) - vocal

        37. Weksel - a dance tune (rec. 1949)
        Antoni Stanik - violin

        38. Lulajze mi lulaj siwe (u)ocka stulaj (Sleep baby, sleep, close your grey eyes) - a lullaby (rec. 1949)
        Marianna Wiktorowicz - vocal

        Rzeszowskie region (recorded in 1950)

        39. Polka - a dance tune
        Pawel Kalinka (b. 1881 in Machów) - pipe (fujarka)

        40. Posluchajcie prosze pilnie o wojnie tureckiej (Listen carefully about Turkish war) - a ballad about Polish king Jan III Sobieski
        Walenty Kunysz (b. 1896 in Kraczkowa) - vocal

        41. Zawisloczek - a dance tune
        Pawel Kalinka - pipe (fujarka)

        42. Od zielonego gaju zniwiareczki sie wala (From the green grove harvesters are comming) - harvest song
        Genowefa Zechowska (b. 1911 Kolbuszowa Górna) - vocal

        43. Niesiemy snopek z pola (We are carrying a whisk from the field) - a harvest festival song
        Walenty Kunysz - vocal

        44. Równy (An even) - a dance tune
        Henryk Kretowicz (b. 1913 in Widelka) - violin

        45. Polka Pali sie pali sie (Polka Fire, fire!) - a dance tune
        Józef Pudlo (b. 1874 in Debina) - violin

        46. Oberek prztykany (Pizzicato oberek) - a dance tune
        Henryk Kretowicz - violin

        47. Niedaleko zielonego dworu (Not far from the green manor house) - a ballad
        Walenty Kunysz - vocal

        48. Wolny (A slow) - a dance tune
        Józef Pudlo - violin

        49. Ej kolem wianku z wiecórecka (Roll, roll the garland in the evening) - a song sung to the wedding rod
        Maria Orlowska (b. 1890 in Machów) - vocal

        50. Wybieraj sie swasiu z nami (Matchmaker, come with us) - bridesmaids' song to invite the matchmaker to the wedding
        Zofia Smielak (b. 1898 in Wysoka) - vocal

        51. Zyd (Jew) - a dance tune
        Henryk Kretowicz - violin

        52. Dobra nocynka swasienko nasa (Goodnight our matchmaker) - a song sung on the wedding eve
        Katarzyna Golenia (b. 1864 in Debina) - vocal

        53. Marsz starodawny - an old time wedding march played at the bride's window on the wedding eve
        Henryk Kretowicz - violin

        54. Siadajze na wóz (Take a sit on the wagon) - a wedding song before departure to church
        Karolina Maczka (b. 1877 in Machów) - vocal

        55. Dziekuje wam mamusienku (Thank you dear mother) - a wedding song before departure to church
        Zofia Smielak - vocal

        56. Krakowiak-marsz podrózny (Trip Krakowiak-march) - an instrumental tune played during a wedding trip
        Chwastarz Michal (b. 1888 in Swieboda) - violin

        57. Weselny Od slubu - (Weselny From the wedding) - wedding tune
        Michal Marszalek (b. 1902 in Orzechowice) - violin

        58. Hejze drobno rutko drobno (Hey little herb-of-grace) - a song sung during coming to the wedding
        Zofia Smielak - vocal

        59. Okragly (A round) - a dance tune
        Józef Zydek (b. 1902 in Osobnica) - violin 1, Stanislaw Zydek (b. 1928 in Osobnica) - violin 2, Jan Zydek (b. 1933 in Osobnica) - bass (basy)

        60. Wokólko - male dance tune
        Józef Zydek - violin 1, Stanislaw Zydek - violin 2, Jan Zydek - bass (basy)

        61. Rozlecialy mi sie siwe golembisie (Scattered the grey pigeons) - a wedding song for goodnight
        Walenty Kunysz - vocal

        62. Oberek Do czepca (Oberek To the coif) - a wedding ritual tune
        Henryk Kretowicz - violin

        63. Wylazla wylazla na nalepe zaba (A frog came out on the floor) - a wedding ritual song for capping (oczepiny)
        Weronika Szela (b. 1903 in Kraczkowa) - vocal, Józef Szela (b. 1896 in Kraczkowa) - violin

        64. Haciok - a dance tune
        Józef Zydek - violin 1, Stanislaw Zydek - violin 2, Jan Zydek - bass (basy)

        65. Polka lewa (Left side polka) - a dance in left direction tune
        Henryk Kretowicz - violin

        66. Ej stary ja se stary (Hey I am getting old) - a wooing song
        Michal Michna (b. 1880 in Wysoka) - vocal

        67. Oberek - a dance tune
        Józef Zydek - violin 1, Stanislaw Zydek - violin 2, Jan Zydek - bass (basy)

        68. Na dach nam wieszynka (Take the bunch to the roof) - a song sung to the ritual bunch of branches
        Walenty Kunysz - vocal

        69. Polka prztykana (Clicking polka) - a dance tune
        Józef Szela - violin

        Lubelskie region (recorded in 1950)

        70. Szczodraka, kolaka powiodali nam (They talked about szczodrak and kolak) - song sung during wassailing and collecting ritual bread
        Karolina Kadzielska (b. 1880 in Wola Idzikowska) - vocal

        71. Prosty starodawny (An old time simple) - a dance tune
        Hipolit Tracz (b. 1902 in Radziecin) - violin 1, Walenty Barton (b. 1888 in Radziecin) - violin 2, Pawel Malyszek (b. 1902 in Radziecin) - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        72. Polka starodawna (Old time polka) - a dance tune
        Józef Radej (b. 1903 in Zalawcze) - violin

        73. Oberek - a dance tune
        Walenty Barton - violin 1, Kazimierz Lagozny (b. 1892 in Radziecin) - violin 2, Pawel Malyszek - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        74. Zagraj mi muzycko (Play some music to me) - a wooing song
        Jan Miksza (b. 1899 in Radziecin) - vocal

        75. Oberek Starego Froncka (Oberek by old Froncek) - a dance tune
        Jan Jablonski (b. 1883 in Niemienice) - violin 1, Jan Machejus (b. 1885 in Niemienice) - violin 2

        76. Mach - a dance tune
        Jan Stefanczyk (b. 1903 in Niemienice) - vocal

        77. Siano mykom nie cieletom ino bykom (Hay for bulls not for calfs) - a couplet
        Jan Stefanczyk - vocal

        78. Majdaniak Tu chalupka tu majdan (Majdaniak Here is the house, there is a clobber) - a dance tune
        Józef Kozlowski (b. 1915 in Hutków) - violin

        79. Zawolajcie mamy mojej (Call for my mother) - a wedding song
        Janina Korczak (b. 1926 Kocudza) - vocal

        80. Do przeprosin (Apologising) - a ritual melody
        Józef Kosz (b. 1885 in Podlesie) - violin

        81. Wista koniki wista (Go horses, go!) - a wedding song
        Honorata Góra (b. 1911 in Hutków) - vocal

        82. Oberek podrózny (Trip oberek) - an instrumental wedding tune played on the way
        Piotr Kiszczak (b. 1881 in Krasnystaw) - violin

        83. Marsz weselny Do slubu - (Going to the wedding) - a wedding march
        Walenty Barton - violin 1, Kazimierz Lagozny - violin 2, Pawel Malyszek - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        84. Oberek starodawny (Old time oberek) - a dance tune
        Hipolit Tracz - violin 1, Walenty Barton - violin 2, Pawel Malyszek - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        85. Wyleciala siwa zezula (A grey cuckoo came out) - a wedding song
        Anna Malec (b. 1911 in Jedrzejówka) - vocal

        86. Do oczepin (For capping) - wedding ritual tune
        Marcin Gilas (b. 1903 in Kocudza) - violin 1, Adam Korczak (b. 1887 in Kocudza) - violin 2, Jan Gilas (b. 1927 in Kocudza) - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        87. Chmiel (Hops) - a wedding ritual tune for capping
        Marcin Gilas - violin, Jan Gilas - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        88. Oberek starodawny (Old time oberek) - a dance tune
        Marcin Gilas - violin, Adam Korczak - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        89. Polka - a dance tune
        Marcin Gilas - violin, Adam Korczak - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        90. Oberek dawny (Old time oberek) - a dance tune
        Marcin Gilas - violin 1, Adam Korczak - violin 2, Jan Gilas - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        91. Oj daliscie mie dali za takie straszydlo (You married me to such an ugly person) - a couplet
        Honorata Góra - vocal

        92. Córusia placze skrzynia kolacze (My daughter is crying, a chest is knocking) - a song sung during ceremonial moving out the bride from the wedding house to the house of the groom
        Anna Buk (b. 1890 in Krasnystaw) - vocal

        93. Oj a skund goscie najechali (Where from did the guests come) - a wedding song
        Zofia Kulawiak (b. 1858 in Niemienice) - vocal

        94. Oberek brzdakany (Strumming oberek) - a dance tune
        Piotr Kiszczak - violin

        95. Oberek Po boru chodzila (Oberek She walked in the woods) - a dance tune with a couplet
        Marcin Gilas - violin, Adam Korczak - vocal, one-sided drum with jingling discs

        96. Oberek - a dance tune
        Marcin Gilas - violin, Jan Gilas - one-sided drum with jingling discs

        97. Po sadenku chodzila (She walked in the orchard) - a pitious song
        Maciej Korczak (b. 1892 in Kocudza) - vocal

        98. Krezeli krezeli (They circled and circled) - a harvest festival song
        Józefa Frej (b. 1870 in Siennica Rózana) - vocal

        99. Oberek Kominiarz (The chimney-sweep oberek) - a dance tune
        Jacenty Borsuk (b. 1882 in Jedrzejówka) - violin


        Recordings are own by IS PAN.
        Artist's right expired.
        All tracks are IPR free (as traditional tunes).
        Booklet text, selection of musical examples, CD arrangement, montage and mastering: Jacek
        Jackowski & Maciej Kierzkowski

        Links

        Various Artists

        Images

        Marian Sobieski is recording on decelith machine, 1949 Vehicle used for transporting researchers and recording equipment Jacenty Borsuk (b. 1882 in Jędrzejówka) Stanisław Kurowski (b. 1880 in Donatowo) - bagpipe, Michał Kurowski (b. 1872 in Nowy Gołębin) - violin (skrzypce podwiązane). Piotr Kiszczak (b. 1881 in Krasnystaw) Tomasz Śliwa (b. 1892 in Perzyny) - bagpipe (kozioł) Tomasz Brudło (b. 1873 in Wąchabno) - bagpipe (kozioł), Walenty Brudło (b. 1869 in Wąchabno) - violin. Photo: M. Sobieski 194 Tapes among which there are copies of decelith plates (Phonogram Archive of Institute of Art of the Polish Academy of Sciences) Deceliths Co-funded by the European Union

        Track List

        1

        Siedzi sowa na stodole (The owl is sitting on the barn)


        Franciszka Ciesiółka – vocal (rec. 1949)

        2

        Kukułeczka zakukała (Cuckooed the cuckoo)


        Franciszka Ciesiółka – vocal (Wielkopolska region / rec. 1949)

        3

        Okrągły (A round) – a dance tune


        Tomasz Śliwa – bagpipe (kozioł ślubny), Edward Rybicki (b. 1909 in Stefanowo) – fiddle (mazanki) (Wielkopolska region / rec. 1950)

        4

        Oberek – a dance tune


        Antoni Stanik (b. 1911 Kozenin) – violin (Opoczyńskie region / rec. 1949)

        5

        Polka – a dance tune


        Antoni Stanik – violin (Opoczyńskie region / rec. 1949)

        6

        Weksel – a dance tune


        Antoni Stanik – violin (Opoczyńskie region / rec. 1949)

        7

        Ej kołem wianku z wiecórecka (Roll, roll the garland in the evening) – a song sung to the weddi


        Maria Orłowska (b. 1890 in Machów) – vocal (Rzeszowskie region / rec. 1950)

        8

        Wybieraj sie swasiu z nami (Matchmaker, come with us) – bridesmaids' song to invite the matchmaker t


        Zofia Śmielak (b. 1898 in Wysoka) – vocal (Rzeszowskie region / rec. 1950)

        9

        Okrągły (A round) – a dance tune


        Józef Żydek (b. 1902 in Osobnica) – violin 1, Stanisław Żydek (b. 1928 in Osobnica) – violin 2, Jan Żydek (b. 1933 in Osobnica) –

        10

        Haciok – a dance tune


        Józef Żydek – violin 1, Stanisław Żydek – violin 2, Jan Żydek – bass (basy) (Rzeszowskie region / rec. 1950)



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